Mainnet Merge Announcement | Ethereum Basis Weblog

  • Ethereum is transferring to proof-of-stake! The transition, referred to as The Merge, should first be activated on the Beacon Chain with the Bellatrix improve. After this, the proof-of-work chain will migrate to proof-of-stake upon hitting a selected Whole Problem worth.
  • The Bellatrix improve is scheduled for epoch 144896 on the Beacon Chain — 11:34:47am UTC on Sept 6, 2022.
  • The Terminal Whole Problem worth triggering The Merge is 58750000000000000000000, anticipated between Sept 10-20, 2022.
  • Be aware: as introduced earlier, the Kiln testnet is being sundown. Operators will shut down on September 6, 2022.


Following years of arduous work, Ethereum’s proof-of-stake improve is lastly right here! The profitable improve of all public testnets is now full, and The Merge has been scheduled for the Ethereum mainnet.

The Merge is totally different from earlier community upgrades in two methods. First, node operators have to replace each their consensus layer (CL) and execution layer (EL) shoppers in tandem, relatively than simply one of many two. Second, the improve prompts in two phases: the primary, named Bellatrix, at an epoch peak on the Beacon Chain, and the second, named Paris, upon hitting a Whole Problem worth on the execution layer.

Improve Data


The Merge is a two-step course of. Step one is a community improve, Bellatrix, on the consensus layer triggered by an epoch peak. That is adopted by the execution layer’s transition from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake, Paris, triggered by a selected Whole Problem threshold known as the Terminal Whole Problem (TTD).

The Bellatrix improve is scheduled for epoch 144896 on the Beacon Chain — 11:34:47am UTC on Sept 6, 2022.

Paris, the execution layer’s portion of the transition, can be triggered by the Terminal Whole Problem (TTD) of 58750000000000000000000, anticipated between Sept 10-20, 2022. The precise date at which TTD is reached relies upon proof-of-work hash charge. Estimates for the transition may be discovered at and

As soon as the execution layer reaches or exceeds the TTD, the next block can be produced by a Beacon Chain validator. The Merge transition is taken into account full as soon as the Beacon Chain finalizes this block. Underneath regular community circumstances, this may occur 2 epochs (or ~13 minutes) after the primary post-TTD block is produced!

A brand new JSON-RPC block tag, finalized, returns the newest finalized block or an error if no such post-merge block exists. This tag can be utilized by functions to verify if The Merge has been accomplished. Equally, sensible contracts can question the DIFFICULTY opcode (0x44) (renamed to PREVRANDAO post-merge) to find out if The Merge has occurred. We advocate infrastructure suppliers monitor general community stability along with finalization standing.

Consumer Releases

The next consumer releases assist The Merge on the Ethereum mainnet. Node operators should run each an execution and consensus layer consumer to stay on the community throughout and after The Merge.

When selecting which consumer to run, validators must be particularly aware of the dangers of operating a majority consumer on each the EL and CL. An explainer of those dangers and their penalties may be discovered right here. An estimate of present EL and CL consumer distribution and guides for switching from one consumer to a different may be discovered right here.

Consensus Layer

Warning: Nimbus model v22.9.0 is a high-urgency improve that fixes a crucial pre-TTD block manufacturing challenge affecting customers that restarted their node after Bellatrix. It additionally improves compatibility with Besu, Prysm and sluggish block builders and offers a pace enhance in block processing vital for these operating on Raspberry Pi and related {hardware}.

Warning: Lighthouse model v3.1.0 is a high-priority launch comprises an vital repair to make sure that Lighthouse doesn’t try to supply invalid blocks. The –strict-fee-recipient flag for the Lighthouse Validator Consumer has additionally been discovered to forestall block proposals within the interval between the Bellatrix improve (Sept sixth) and the TTD date (estimated Sept fifteenth). We’re presently inside that time period and due to this fact all stakers utilizing that flag are affected. We advise that anybody utilizing the –strict-fee-recipient flag ought to take away it and restart the Validator Consumer as quickly as attainable. This doesn’t have an effect on the –suggested-fee-recipient flag.

Warning: Prysm v3.1.1 is a extremely advisable replace because it comprises a number of vital fixes and options for the merge.

Warning: Teku model 22.9.0 is a required replace.

Execution Layer

Warning: Besu 22.7.2 is a advisable launch for the Merge and Mainnet customers. 22.7.1 stays Merge-ready. This launch offers further robustness earlier than the Merge with some fixes and enhancements in sync, peering, and logging.

Warning: Erigon model v2022.09.01-alpha fixes invalid block manufacturing as a consequence of inadequate verification of digital signature elements, block snapshot manufacturing that generally happens throughout POS reverse header obtain and lots of smaller bugs and questions of safety. All Erigon customers are advisable to improve to this or a later model previous to the Merge.

Warning: geth model v1.10.22 comprises a crucial database challenge, don’t use this model, and when you’ve got already upgraded, please improve to v1.10.23 as quickly as attainable.

Improve Specs

Consensus-critical adjustments for The Merge are laid out in two locations:

  • The consensus layer adjustments below the Bellatrix listing of the consensus-specs repository
  • The execution layer adjustments below the Paris spec within the execution-specs repository

Along with these, two different specs cowl how the consensus and execution layer shoppers work together:

  • The Engine API, specified within the execution-apis repository, is used for communication between the consensus and execution layers
  • Optimistic Sync, specified within the sync folder of the consensus-specs repository, is utilized by the consensus layer to import blocks because the execution layer consumer is syncing and to supply a partial view of the top of the chain from the previous to the latter

Merge Bug Bounty Bonus

All Merge-related bounties for vulnerabilities have obtained a 4x multiplier between now and the eighth of September. Crucial bugs at the moment are value as much as $1 million USD.

See the bug bounty program for extra particulars.


As a node operator, what ought to I do?

Publish-merge, an Ethereum full node is the mix of a consensus layer (CL) consumer which runs the proof-of-stake Beacon Chain and an execution layer (EL) consumer which manages the user-state and runs the computations related to transactions. The EL and CL consumer talk over an authenticated port utilizing a brand new set of JSON RPC strategies known as the Engine API. The EL and CL consumer authenticate one another utilizing a JWT secret. Node operators ought to consult with their shoppers’ documentation for directions about learn how to generate and configure this worth.

In different phrases, for those who had been already operating a node on the Beacon Chain, you now additionally have to run an execution layer consumer. Equally, for those who had been operating a node on the present proof-of-work community, you will want to run a consensus layer consumer. For them to speak securely, a JWT token should be handed to every consumer. An replace to the ‘Run a Node’ part of the web site goes over these steps in additional element.

It’s value emphasizing that whereas they’re each a part of consensus layer consumer releases, operating a Beacon Node is distinct from operating a Validator Consumer. Stakers should run each, however node operators solely want the previous. This put up explains the distinction between each elements in additional element.

Additionally, word that every layer will preserve an impartial set of friends and expose its personal APIs. The Beacon and JSON RPC APIs will each proceed working as anticipated.

As a staker, what do I have to do?

As defined above, validators on the Beacon Chain might want to run an execution layer consumer after The Merge along with their consensus layer shoppers. Pre-merge, this was strongly advisable, however some validators have outsourced these capabilities to third-party suppliers. This was attainable as a result of the one information required on the execution layer had been updates to the deposit contract.

Publish-merge, validators should be sure that consumer transactions and state transitions blocks that they create and attest to are legitimate. To do that, every beacon node should be paired with an execution layer consumer. Be aware that a number of validators can nonetheless be paired to a single beacon node & execution layer consumer combo. This expands validators’ obligations but in addition offers a validator who proposes a block the fitting to its related transaction precedence charges (which presently go to miners).

Whereas validator rewards nonetheless accrue on the Beacon Chain and would require a subsequent community improve to be withdrawn, transaction charges can be paid, burned, and distributed on the execution layer. Validators can specify any Ethereum tackle as a recipient for transaction charges.

After updating your consensus consumer, you should definitely set the payment recipient as a part of your validator consumer configurations to make sure transaction charges are despatched to an tackle you management. In case you have staked utilizing a third-party supplier, it’s as much as your chosen supplier to specify how these charges are allotted.

The Staking Launchpad has a Merge Readiness Guidelines that stakers can use to make sure they’ve gone by every step of the method. EthStaker have additionally hosted Validator Prep Workshops, with extra being deliberate.

Stakers who want to run a validator on a testnet in preparation for the mainnet proof-of-stake transition can achieve this on Goerli (now merged with Prater), which additionally has a Staking Launchpad occasion.

Why is the estimated date for the Terminal Whole Problem so broad?

The incremental issue added per block depends on the community hash charge which is risky. If extra hash charge joins the community, TTD can be reached sooner. Equally, if hash charge leaves the community, TTD can be reached later. Within the occasion of a big drop in hash charge ranges, a TTD Override could possibly be coordinated as was completed on Ropsten.

As an utility or tooling developer, what ought to I do?

As defined in a earlier put up, The Merge may have solely minimal impression on a subset of contracts deployed on Ethereum, none of which must be breaking. Moreover, the lion’s share of consumer API endpoints stay steady (until you utilize proof-of-work particular strategies corresponding to eth_getWork).

That mentioned, most functions on Ethereum contain far more than on-chain contracts. Now’s the time to make sure that your front-end code, tooling, deployment pipeline and different off-chain elements work as meant. We strongly advocate that builders run by an entire testing & deployment cycle on Sepolia or Goerli and report any points with instruments or dependencies to these initiatives’ maintainers. If you’re uncertain the place to open a problem, please use this repository.

Moreover, please word that each one testnets other than Sepolia and Goerli can be deprecated post-merge. If you’re a consumer of Ropsten, Rinkeby or Kiln, it’s best to plan emigrate to Goerli or Sepolia. Extra details about this may be discovered right here.

As an Ethereum consumer or Ether holder, is there something I have to do?

Whether or not you might be utilizing Ethereum functions on-chain, holding Ether on an alternate or in a self-custodied pockets, you should not have to do something. If an utility, alternate or pockets you utilize affords additonal directions or suggestions, it’s best to confirm these are literally coming from them. Be looking out for scams!

As a miner, is there something I have to do?

No. If you’re mining on the Ethereum mainnet, try to be conscious that the community will function completely below proof-of-stake after The Merge. At that time, mining will not be attainable on the community.

What occurs if I’m a miner or node operator and I don’t take part within the improve?

If you’re utilizing an Ethereum consumer that’s not up to date to the newest model (listed above), your consumer will sync to the pre-fork blockchain as soon as the improve happens.

You’ll be caught on an incompatible chain following the outdated guidelines and can be unable to ship Ether or function on the post-merge Ethereum community.

As a validator, can I withdraw my stake?

No. The Merge is essentially the most difficult improve to Ethereum to this point. To reduce dangers of community disruptions, a minimal strategy was taken which excluded any non-transition adjustments from this improve.

Withdrawals from the Beacon Chain will doubtless be launched within the first improve after The Merge. Specs for each the consensus and execution layers are in progress.

I’ve extra questions, the place can I ask them?

Be part of consumer group builders, members of ETHStaker, researchers, and extra on the subsequent Merge Group Name on Friday, Sept 9 at 14:00 UTC!

Thank You

Ethereum’s transition to proof-of-stake has been a loooong time coming. Thanks to everybody who contributed to researching, specifying, growing, analyzing, testing, breaking, fixing, or explaining the whole lot that acquired us to The Merge.

There have been far too many contributors over time to record right here, however who you might be. With out all of you within the bazaar, we would not have constructed this cathedral.

wen merge? Very 🔜.

Thanks to Joseph Schweitzer and Tomo Saito for the quilt picture for this put up!

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